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Nihaev A.


The world associates Russia with words: Chechnya, Vodka, automate Kalashnikov. A little is known about the Russian Federation (RF) and less is known about Siberia. Siberia is located in the Asian part of RF. Almost all of the population is disposed in the southern part, because it is warmer and it has better natural conditions for rural economy than in the northern part (winter temperature
-50 C` and less). One of the industrial and scientific cities of Western Siberia is Novosibirsk ( 1.5 million population ). This city is called the capital of Siberia (non-official). The area of Novosibirsk region is178000 square kilometers - is not so large according to the Siberian standards. The population is 2746.1 thousand people, 1700 thousand out of them are townspeople. Most of the population - about 92% - are the Russians, the rest of the population is mostly represented by the Ukrainians, the Germans and the Tartars.
The history of settling of the Novosibirsk region takes its roots from far ago. In 11th century the nomad tribes living by cattle breeding, hunting and fur trade came to Siberia. The same time the Novgorod people new about the fur wealth of Trans-Ural territory used to trade with the aborigines, who did not do farming. Fighting their hard and dangerous way down, the host people were coming here and building ostrogs (fortresses). Farmers, carpenters, hunters and other people of fortune followed them.First people were settling the banks of the rivers, like Ob and Herd. Around 1644 the contemporary Maslyanino settlement was found on the Berd river, and in 1718 the Berdsky ostrog was built. Building of the Siberian route in 1733-1735 promoted the settling of Baraba plain. In the 20-ties of the 19th century the state farmers were permitted to move from the Russian provinces with land shortage to Siberia. The farmers started to move from the European Russia even more actively after the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway and, especially, in the period of Stolypin land reform. In late 19th and early 20th century the number of settlements increased not only in the areas along the Trans-Siberian railway, but also in Kulunda and in the more remote from the railway areas.The railway start-up created favorable conditions for export of cheap and high-quality wheat, lumber and butter. In 189-i only 400 puds (a measure of weight, equals nearly 16 kg) of processed butter were exported from Siberia.
Five years later as much as 310000 puds of the Baraba butter were exported.In the beginning of the Great Patriotic War a great number of enterprises and more than 70000 workmen and office staff were evacuated to the Novosibirsk region as the most economically developed region of the Eastern part of the country. Moreover, the region gave a refuge to a great number of people from the Western republics of the USSR and from the areas of actions, as well as to a lot of German people from Povolzhie (Volga area) and the Kalmyks. In the prior unsettled areas the plants, factories and other enterprises were being built, and a lot of populated localities and districts were formed around them. The urban population has increased by 700 to 800 thousand people.

The difficulties of administration of such a great area were multiplied by the economic problems. A comprehensive development of economics and the newly arisen complicated social and living problems required a more intensive and accurate management of all industries and improvement of the living standard of the population. To this end, nine cities and 23 districts were withdrawn from the Novosibirsk region by the resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR from 26 January 1943. These cities and territories formed the Kemerovo region. By another resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR from 13 August 1943, the Tomsk region with two cities and 20 rural districts was withdrawn from the Novosibirsk region. At the same period, districts of the Altai territory (Andreevsky, Veselovsky, Karasuksky and Krasnozersky districts) were
subordinated to the Novosibirsk region.

By the end of the war the Novosibirsk region consisted of 36 districts, four of which (Irmensky, Legostaevsky, Pikhtovsky and Oyashevsky districts) were abolished in the period before 1962. The resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR from 1963 integrated 32 existing districts into 19, and 6 more districts were established in 1965. In 1966, the Novosibirsk region included 6 cities of regional subordination and 7 cities of district subordination, as well as 9 urban districts of Novosibirsk and 26 rural districts. In 1970 Kirovsky district of Novosibirsk was splitted, and Leninsky district was formed as a result. In 1972 Moshkovsky rural district was established, and in 19H9 the 01) city was classified as a city of regional subordination. Presently, (lie region consists of 36 rural districts and 7 cities of regional subordination.
In conclusion I should say that everybody must know the history of his homeland. Especially the history of his region.

15:19 27.04.2002 Nihaev A.V. ,NSAEM